[Note 1/6/17: When countries formally ratify the Paris Agreement, their INDCs become NDCs. To date, 146 countries and the European Union have ratified the agreement. The UN maintains separate records for NDCs and CNDs.] Since the adoption of the United Nations Convention on Climate Change in 1992, Turkey has become more dependent on fossil fuels, particularly coal, to meet the growing demand for energy. Emissions increased by 135.4% between 1990 and 2016. To combat climate change and its negative effects, 197 countries adopted the Paris Agreement at COP21 on 12 December 2015 in Paris. The agreement, which came into force less than a year later, aims to significantly reduce global greenhouse gas emissions and limit global temperature rise to 2 degrees Celsius this century, while continuing to limit the rise to 1.5 degrees. The climate solutions in the paper are not new, acknowledges lead author William Ripple of Oregon State University. But by listing the solutions as a series of six milestones, with “simple graphic indicators that show where we were 40 years ago and how things have changed,” the authors hope that these will be easily understood for everyone, Ripple says. Using a different methodology that takes into account the situation, performance and plans of each country, the climate change performance index showed that Sweden, Denmark and Morocco are the three largest countries, and the three lowest are Taiwan, Saudi Arabia and the United States. New Zealand is 34th and Australia 53rd out of 58 countries assessed. Through measures such as the gradual introduction of energy subsidies within 3 to 5 years and, potentially, a national carbon market to achieve “high co2 protection”. It also targets the use of renewable and nuclear energy sources. Requires $73 billion in international aid.
Contains the adjustment section. The Egyptian INDC. Last week, the new President of the European Commission, Ursula von der Leyen, announced that she would increase the target by up to 55%. Some European countries are moving faster: Denmark, already 32% below its 1990 level, adopted a 70% reduction this month by 2030. Since November 2020, 194 states and the European Union have signed the agreement. 188 countries and the EU, which account for about 79% of global greenhouse gas emissions, have ratified the agreement or have joined the agreement, including China and India, the countries with the first and third CO2 emissions among UNFCCC members.    All 197 UNFCCC members have signed or joined. All countries need to strengthen, accept that global emissions must reach zero by 2050 and take great strides to achieve this, says Niklas Huhne of the NewClimate Institute for Climate Institute for Climate Institute for Climate Policy and Global Sustainability in Germany.